IMPACT of INTEGRATION of OUR TECHNOLOGY
With more than one fifth of the globe being incapacitated from access to electricity, we do need to start implementing available resources within reach via most effective methodologies rather than wasting them. Africa and South Asia combined, the need for investment to cover such needs is estimated around 110 billion USD. That is so, only when utilized technologies perform in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications, which we already know they do not..
ADDED VALUE of VARIABLE FLOW VOLVAR℗ PUMP DRIVE TECHNOLOGY
As sustaining the efficiency levels of photovoltaic panels has become a need, we come up with a basic idea that renders such systems to function steadily. Remember that, it is of small changes that bring about reforms and prove to be influential at the end.. Indeed, rather than steady flow of fluid in the system, a variable flow of fluid passing though the pipes of a photovoltaic thermal panel is certain to satisfy the constant cooling needs of the system warming up under the sun. Such technology implementation renders continuity on the proper functioning of the panel. The Rational Exergy Management Method (REMM) efficiency of planar collector is 0.269, compared to 0.53 in PV panels.
With our variable flow VOLVAR℗ Pump Drive Technology, the upper limit of REMM efficiency for PVT panels is 0.90. In the meanwhile, the system with our technology would produce reasonable and useful amount of heat, while minimizing the demand for the pump power. Thus, the above-mentioned <<flaw of photovoltaic thermal systems>> is dispersed and or prevented in accordance with the environmental conditions.
Let your Solar System stay always at the Peak of Effectiveness with VOLVAR℗ PUMP DRIVE
The change of performance of a PVT system with the average coolant temperature,
which needs to be controlled by the flow rate and supply temperature.
In above diagram, a photovoltaic thermal system is visualized for emphasis of its usefulness in application of efficient electricity production, while satisfying warm water, warming and cooling needs in residential, industrial, governmental, military and numerous other applications.
PHOTOVOLTAIC PANEL INSTALLATIONS
At an insolation level of 800W/m2, photovoltaic panel system efficiency according to the first law of thermodynamics is around 0.20, and at most a 0.36 according to the second law. That is, the current PV technology can only produce 20% of electrical power of the total solar flux reaching the panels. No further implementation exists at this point as the panels can only produce a small portion of the useful energy potential. Thermo-electric conversion efficiency of PV systems decreases even more with the increased temperature values of the PV. In hot climates when electric power demand is the highest for comfort cooling purposes, such situations become even more striking. Further, if the CO2 emission reduction contribution rate of planar collectors were taken as basis of one (1), the CO2 emission reduction contribution rate of PV would be 1.62.
IMPROVEMENT with PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL (PVT)
The problem of the panel’s decreased first law efficiency has tried to be eliminated via cooling the PV panels, which brought along the idea of generating hot water concurrently. The resulting design is called the PVT (Photovoltaic Thermal) system. While try to recuperate heat, we simulteanously try to cool the panel.
In comparison to the photovoltaic system efficiencies of 0.20 and 0.36, with a Combined Heat and Power equipment such Photovoltaic Thermal Panel, the first and second law efficiencies are expected to increase to 0.92 and 0.58 in theory, but not yet been realized in practice. That is, the PVT panel with an efficiency level of 0.92 should harvest 58% of the total solar flux reaching it to transform into useful energy. In this perspective, the CO2 emission reduction contribution rate of the PVT technology is calculated as 7.31 in comparison to that of the planar collector.
FLAW of PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL SYSTEMS
As the cooling fluid circulated in PVT system is permitted to warm up in order to obtain useful heat, the goal of increasing power generation efficiency is compromised. Due to the fact that the core production materials of the panels that are susceptible to heat that keeps on decreasing the power generation efficiency, PVT systems face a dilemma:
Shall we cool the PVT panels and heat the coolant a little, or
heat the coolant up and let the efficiency of the photovoltaic panels to be low?
As a result, the obtainment of maximum expected useful energy from PVT systems has not been realized. Therefore, the actual efficiency measures can be much lower than those specified by the panel manufacturers. In such cases, the useful energy harvest rate of an installed PVT panel may only approximate to that of a PV; possibly not even able to capture the mentioned 20% efficiency level! Therefore, even a comprehensive feasibility analysis may not function as foreseen, since the panel material would be effected from heat, decreasing the capacity of the equipment to even lower levels. If one keeps the circulating fluid cold, then useful heat may not be obtained and the PVT system returns back to PV status whose efficiency is increased with the cooling system. Furthermore, as the circulating pump drains power from the system, the stabilization of the photovoltaic efficiency may not pay back the pumping expenses in many cases.
In summary, current PVT systems do not really work mainly because of two reasons: First, the power needed for circulating the coolant with a pump may exceed the power gained from cooling the photovoltaic panel. Second, for an effective cooling of the PV panel, the coolant temperature must be kept rather cool. However, circulation of lukewarm water in the system, which is originally designed for hot water circulation, would decrease the usefulness of the system. The reality is that the coolant circulation must be carefully optimized every second as factors such as ambient conditions, PV temperature, solar insolation, heat demand, etc. instantly changes.